My vision of leadership

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Leadership Concept

The thousands people explaining can get the thousands definition of leadership. People interest about this topic has many hundreds of years, from the early Greek to now (Bolden, 2004). Sharma and Jain (2013) expounded that leadership is a process which one person guide a group of people to complete a target, and this process will made the people becoming more cohesive and coherent. Winston and Patterson (2006) also provided the similar definition about leadership. They supported that the leader is one person who can influences his/her followers to get achievement, and in this process, the followers should willingly and enthusiastically. However, in my opinion, the leadership means responsibility, and the responsibility of leaders is not only considering the benefit for organizations, leaders also will consider the interest for their followers. In addition, the responsibility will give a motive power for leaders which made them to finish the achievements. Moreover, the responsibility also will make the leaders to keep the clear head for making the right decision for organizations. Certainly, the leadership is a long process start from building team, but not stop when they complete the targets. Then, leadership is an importantly and comprehensive skill for the successful personages.

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A great leader is not only be worshiped by the followers, other people also will praise him/her, when they take about the leader. Then, the first name appear in my brain, when someone ask me who is the most effective leadership, is Steve Jobs. There are three reason for I choose Jobs. First of all, he was a very successful business man. In 1976, he and his partner, Steve Wozniak, founded the Apple Computers, Inc. Although Apple was sinked into the bankruptcy in 1996, Jobs rescued Apple using new operating system (Richardson & Terrell, 2008).  Furthermore, Jobs bring the new miraculous achievement for Apple. Secondly, Jobs also was a technological reformer. He changed the impression of mobile phone, before the iPhone, people only know the mobile phone can calling and sending messages. But iPhone gives a new definition of mobile phone, it can become a game player, mini-PC, documents manager and so on. The final one, Jobs also was an inspirational person. We all know he did not finish his university courses, as some other successful personage, he used his experience to prove again that the graduation certificate is nothing, the most important things for be successful is having an innovational idea and realizing it.

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The feedback from my colleagues toll me that I have two strengths for develop in food retail industry. The specific area of food retail industry for I development is seafood retail. This seafood is not the fresh one, it is the products after processed. The first strength is family superiority. My parents have their business which is the selling the seafood after process. The benefit of dried seafood is that it has the longer storage life than fresh one. Then, the processed seafood can be selling to the inland areas. Although my parents’ business only is a local and personal business, they have more than 20 years for working in this area. Then, they have a lot of experience for the processed seafood industry, in addition, these experience will helpful for my development. Another strength is I already have a part of skills for be a good leader. I can make a good job distribute for group work and supervise the team members to finish their work. Although my communication skills are a little weak, I can bovine to listen to group members.

Skills

Skills

The first skill which I need to improve is communication skill, using communication we can get a large number of useful information from other person. In addition, a good communication can helpful to build the relationship with others. Thus, the successful leaders usually have the great communication skill to spread their opinion and get the views from other. Secondly, my management skill also need be improved. For a good leaders, their need know how to manage their followers to work together. The mainly impacting of management is making the group members can work for one common target. Another significance of management is reasonable work allocation. I have not an acute analysis ability for market potential. The analyzing of market potential will help the leaders to make a right decision for the development plan. For this part, I should read more news about economy, the timely new information is very important for business. The organization leaders will find the useful information to making business plan.

Reference:

Bolden, R. (2004). What is Leadership? University of Exeter, Centre for Leadership Studies.

Richardson, A., & Terrell, E. (2008). This Month in Business History: Apple Computer, Inc. [Online]. Available at: http://www.loc.gov/rr/business/businesshistory/April/apple.html [Accessed 24 Jun. 2015].

Sharme, M. K., & Jain, S. (2013). Leadership Management: Principles, Models and Theories. Global Journal of Management and Business Studies. Vol. 3. No. 3. Pp. 309-318.

Winston, B. E., & Patterson, K. (2006). An Integrative Definition of Leadership. International Journal of Leadership Studies. Vol. 1. Issue. 2. Pp. 6-66.

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Leadership and Change 

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Change, this is the thing which happen in every day in the world. Or we can said that everything has change, such as the technology, the thought of people, the scientific research and so on. However, following the change is not an easily thing, sometimes the undeserved management will resistance to change. As the Mullins (2010) said: “there is little management can do about resistance to change”. When the change has be impeded, the company will in the dry tree. Due to the drastic competitive, the companies should have a clipping solutions when the change happened (Eisold, 2010). There are four causes will resistance to change. The first point is poor communication, the leaders should as the key decision makers when the changes start. Thus, the leaders should collect the first-hand information for making decision at quickly. Then, the poor communication will retard the speed of collecting. Secondly, self-interest also will rejection of change, for example, some want to maintain the status because the personal reason; others maybe have the different motivations (Brookins, 2015). The next one is feeling excluded. When the employees feel excluded, they will lose the enthusiasm of working. In addition, employees also will lose the opportunity to expound their opinions (Rozycki, 2015). The final and most important one is lack of trust. Trust plays an indispensable role in a successful organization. Then, when the organization is lack of trust between the managers and employees, it cannot development for making change (Brookins, 2015).

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The causes of resistance to change have been found, then the managers should think the solution to avoiding and overcoming these resistance. In this process, the managers will play a decisive role, because the managers have the power to issue orders. The managers have the initiative to solve these resistance to change (Bovey & Hede, 2001). Firstly, the managers should be an information collector. They should need their communicative competence to taking with employees, this action can help the managers get the truly feedback from subordinates. In addition, this communication also will made the employees to feeling the participant. Thereby, the employees will give the active attitude for the change (Ford, D’Amelio & Ford, 2008). Secondly, managers should also be a target mentor. When the team members have difference personal target, the team will disintegrated. Thus, the managers must keep that there is only one target for team. Finally, the managers should as an image for employees. It will reduce the conflict of management, when the subordinates have enough trust for their leader. Actually, building the trust, the leaders should have the personality charm and achievement (Mutihac, 2010).

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Although the companies always ponder the method to avoiding the resistance, the process of overcoming resistance also will bring the unexpected benefit for companies. For instance, there is a chance for improve the communication between managers and employees. Moreover, when the managers and subordinates on common to solve this problem, the true between them also will enhanced. Thus, the successful leaders regard these resistance as a stumbling block, they think it can be the opportunities (Yilmaz & Kilicoglu, 2013). There are three model for change management, Lewin’s Change Management Model, McKinsey 7s Model, and, Kotter’s 8 Step Change Model (Normandin, 2012). For my viewpoint, the Lewin’s model should been the first choose. The first reason is that this model is the most easily one, Lewin’s model only has three stages, Unfreeze, Transition, and, Refreeze. Although he did not give the specific precess for these three steps, he already give the accurate explain for the meaning of stages (Kritsonis, 2005).

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The successful managers can give a speediness and effective crisis public relations when the companies happened some scandal. For example, TESCO had a £250m accounting scandal in 2014, and TESCO lose 16.5% share in week by the influence for this scandal, it means wiping the £3bn off firm’s value (Butler & Farrell, 2014). Furthermore, Dave Lewis who is the CEO of TESCO send an e-mail to thousands of staff in immediately. In this e-mail, he put forward his opinion for change the culture of TESCO. He believed that the reason for this scandal is opaque operate on the accounting. Then, his proposal is keeping integrity and transparency at all times (Butler & Farrell, 2014). His reformation measures help the TESCO to pull through the harmful impact of this scandal. The reaction and strain capacity of managers will decide the companies can be survival or not after the scandal. Certainly, insisting the moral bottom line and keeping the well-deserved reputation are the key factor for sustainable development of companies. For the food retail industry, the food safety issue is the never despise the ethics.

Reference:

Bovey, W. H., & Hede, A. (2001). Resistance to Organizational Change: the Role of Cognitive and Affective Processes. Leadership & Organization Development Journal. Vol. 22. No. 8. Pp. 372-382.

Brookins, M. (2015). What Causes Resistance to Change in an Organization? [Online]. Available at: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/causes-resistance-change-organization-347.html [Accessed 16 Jun. 2015].

Butler, S., & Farrell, S. (2014). TESCO must Change Culture and Reinvent Brand, New Boss Tells Employees. [Online]. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/business/2014/sep/26/tesco-must-change-culture-reinvent-brand [Accessed 16 Jun. 2015].

Eisold, K. (2010). Resistance to Change in Organizations. [Online]. Available at: https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/hidden-motives/201005/resistance-change-in-organizations [Accessed 16 Jun. 2015].

Ford, J. D., Ford, L. W., & D’Amelio, A. (2008). Resistance to Change: the Rest of the Story. Academy of Management Review. Vol. 33. No. 2. Pp. 362-377.

Kritsonis, A. (2005). Comparison of Change Theories. International Journal of Management, Business, and Administration. Vol. 8. No. 1.

Mutihac, R. (2010). Managing Resistance and the Use of Internal Communication in Organizations Undergoing Change. Asrhus School of Business. Department of Language and Business Communication.

Normandin, B. (2012). Three Types of Change Management Models. [Online]. Available at: http://quickbase.intuit.com/blog/2012/08/28/three-types-of-change-management-models/ [Accessed 16 Jun. 2015]

Rozycki, E. G. (2015). Employee Resistance to Organizational Change. [Online]. Available at: http://www.newfoundations.com/OrgTheory/Bolognese721.html [Accessed 16 Jun. 2015].

Yilmaz, D., & Kilicoglu, G. (2013). Resistance to Change and Ways of Reducing Resistance in Educational Organizations. European Journal of Research on Education. Vol. 1. No. 1. Pp. 14-21.

Most effective Leadership & Management Styles & Approaches

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Although we cannot give a specific definition for leadership and management, there is a unique opinion in the heart for each person. In my opinion, they have the similarities position, but they also have a lot of differences. Firstly, on the similarities, leaders and managers usually play the same role in the organizations. In the business, their position bring the same supervision and power for them. In addition, in the companies, the manager must be a leader, because they need the power to use the management role. Another reason is that both of managers and leaders involve a decision-making process (Gordon, 2014).

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Moreover, on the differences, the largest distinguish is the focus. Leadership is focus on leading people, then the followers will following them. The orientation of leadership is people-oriented, in addition, their power comes from the charisma and influence. Thus, the followers admire the leaders, and they will want to help the leaders to get the achievements (Lopez, 2014). On the other hand, management is focus on managing work. Their orientation is task-oriented, then they order the subordinates to get the results. Furthermore, their power come from the formal authority and position (Diffen.com, 2015). The second difference is about the right things or things right. The leaders always want to keep the followers, because if the leaders want to get successful, they need the helping hand from the followers. Then, the leaders will do the right things to attract the followers. However, the managers just want to finish the work, they only involved the results. Thus, in the general, the managers use their way to control the subordinates to work. The managers do the things right (Torres, 2013).

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On the general, there are five methods for managing the subordinates, they are Laissez-Faire, Autocratic, Participative, Transactional, and, Transformational (Johnson, 2015). Although the laissez-faire style is useful to improve the employees’ working enthusiasm on teamwork and commitment, the leaders lack straightforward controlling for the worker, and the feedback also cannot transmit to leaders. In addition, the autocratic managing method is centralization of authority. The main influencing factor of the development process for organizations is the leaders’ decisiveness (Uche.C & Timinepere, 2012). Compare with the first and second managing methods, transactional leadership and transformational leadership easier to enhance the productivity and efficiency. Because the transactional leadership uses the material rewards to encourage the employees, such as bonuses, while the transformational leadership uses the mentally rewards, for example, through communication and high visibility (Buble, Juras & Matic, 2014). In my viewpoint, I think the most effective approach is participative leadership, because the employees can participate in the management for the company, this will satisfy the employees from both of material and mentally. In addition, the managers also can get the feedback from employees on immediately.

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However, the difference companies have the difference situations, so it cannot find that one style can apply to all the companies. Moreover, according to the ability and character of leaders, they also  will choose the difference leadership styles. As the CMI (2013) said that the best approach should according to circumstances and individual characteristics, and I very agree with this viewpoint. Although in my opinion, I think the best approach is participative leadership, this style cannot use on all organizations. Getting the feedback from each employee is a very democratic way, but when the companies need to make a decision in a short period, this style will meets a big challenge. I consider that Steve Jobs – the ex-CEO of Apple and Larry Page – the CEO of Google are the profit leaders which I want to work for. Certainly, they use the different leadership styles to manage the employees. Steve Jobs as a transformational leader, the Apple is focus on the innovation and high technology, then Jobs always encourage the employees to propose the new ideas (Steinwart & Ziegler, 2014). However, the Larry Page is more laissez-faire leader. The corporate culture of Google is not giving employees too much restrains when they develop new ideas (Thompson, 2015).

FILE - In this June 12, 2007 file photo, Google co-founder Larry Page smiles at a news conference held at Google headquarters in Mountain View, Calif. When he replaced his mentor Eric Schmidt as Google's CEO last April, Page insisted that the company had to be more aggressive about countering the threat posed by Facebook's ever-growing popularity.  Page responded with a social networking crusade that is still reshaping Google Inc. as he marks his one-year anniversary as chief executive on Wednesday, April 3, 2012. (AP Photo/Paul Sakuma, file)steve-jobs-5

If I as a team member, I want to Larry Page be my leader. Despite I prefer like Jobs on individual, the laissez-faire leadership can give me more motive power to working. I hope the leader can support my new ideas, because I always can get some new points when I was working or studying. The innovation ability of employees is a very important factor for the development of companies. The leaders support for the innovation is same to improve the development. In addition, when the employees can get the sustain from leaders, it also helpful for improve the working enthusiasm.

Reference:

Buble, M., Juras, A., & Matic, I. (2014). The Relationship Between Mangers’ Leadership Styles and Motivation. Management. Vol. 19. No. 1. Pp. 161-193.

Diffen.com. (2015). Leadership vs Management – Difference and Comparison. [Online]. Available at: http://www.diffen.com/difference/Leadership_vs_Management [Accessed 10 Jun. 2015]

Gordon, L. (2014). Are Managers and Leaders the Same? [Online] progressivecattle.com. Available at: http://www.progressivecattle.com/topics/management/6096-are-managers-and-leaders-the-same [Accessed 10 Jun. 2015].

Johnson, R. (2015). 5 Different Types of Leadership Styles. [Online]. Available at: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/5-different-types-leadership-styles-17584.html [Accessed 10 Jun. 2015]

Lopez, R. (2014). The Relationship between Leadership and Management: Instructional Approaches and its Connections to Organizational Growth. Journal of Business Studies Quarterly. Vol. 6. No. 1.

Steinwart, M. C., & Ziegler, J. A. (2014). Remembering Apple CEO Steve Jobs as a “Transformational Leader”: Implications for Pedagogy. Journal of Leadership Education. Vol. 13. Issue. 2. Pp. 52-66.

Thompson, S. (2015). Google’s Business Leadership and Organizational Culture. [Online]. Available at: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/googles-business-leadership-organizational-culture-58108.html [Accessed 10 Jun. 2015]

Torres, S. L. (2013). Leadership vs Management: Differences and Similarities. [Online] creditunionbusiness.com. Available at: http://www.creditunionbusiness.com/2013/09/19/leadership-vs-management-differences-and-similarities/ [Accessed 10 Jun. 2015].

Uche.C, N., & Timinepere, C. O. (2012). Management Styles and Organizational Effectiveness: An Appraisal of Private Enterprises in Eastern Nigeria. American International Journal of Contemporary Research. Vol. 2. No. 9.

The challenge of managing diverse teams

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The companies usually want have a diverse development, because it will useful for improve the comprehensive capacity of enterprises. Thus, the team work in enterprises frequently is the diverse team. In the general cognitive, the diversity is almost always equivalent to the gender or ethnic diversity. However, the diverse teams is not only limitation on this diversity for now, it is also consider on other forms of diversity, for example the difference age, education, firm tenure, and technical background (Knight, etc., 1999). Although the diverse teams can provided more exhaustive opinion than the single teams, the difficulty of management for the diverse teams is also higher. This is a challenge for the manager, but it also is an opportunities for improve the ability of leadership. Thus, this paper will expound that the challenge of managing diverse teams, and give the example for the successful leaders to elaborate the approach to solve these problems.

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In indeed, it is very difficult for leaders to managing a teams, because the each team member has difference thinking, habit for working, discipline of life, and so on. However, the leader should assemble the power from everyone and work for a target. At the first, the advantages of diversity in workplace has three points. The first one is diverse experience. The co-workers have the unique experiences and perceptions when they work together, because they have the difference cultural backgrounds (Ingram & Media, 2015). Although each employee has the weaknesses derived from their culture, if they can strengthen the team’s productivity, they can use their strengths to complement the weaknesses and impact the workforce greater. Moreover, another advantage of work in diverse teams is learning and growth. When the employees work in diversity, they can learning from other team members and this will useful for their personal growth. In addition, this growth is not only helping the employees to get the new ideas or knowledges for workplace, they also can gain the social skills, such as how to communicate with the person from difference cultures. The final point, when people are not familiar with other cultures, they usually have an intensity manner of ethnocentrism and xenophobia. Then, it will break down the subconscious barriers if the employees can spend time to communicate with culturally diverse co-workers (Interactive, 2015).

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On the other hand, the diverse teams also will bring some problems. There are two disadvantages for work on the diverse teams. Firstly, employees maybe will get the polarity viewpoints for one thing, because they have the difference culture and religion. The conflict from culture or religion maybe will trigger a drastic argue between the team members. Quarrel and angry will block the flow of teamwork, if the quarrel is not be restrained, the team maybe will be dismissed (Sammartino, O’Flynn & Nicholas, 2002). The communication issue is also a big problem for diverse teams. The team members for diverse teams usually come from difference countries, and they have the difference first language. Thus, when they are taking on teamwork, sometimes they will get the misunderstood for the points from other team members. However, the problem only happened on the initial stage of diverse teams, because when the members use long time to work together, the communication barriers will be reduced (Ingram & Media, 2015).

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Certainly, this is a huge challenge for the leaders to manage the diverse teams. The managers should have more skills than manage normal teams. First at all, the managers should have higher leadership to control the teamwork, such as avoid getting frustrated and angry. Moreover, they need the better communication skills, the managers should guarantee each team member can understand their requires. The best managers for diverse teams should have an open-door policy. The open-door policy means that the leaders should listen to their employees to get the more information. The more informations is helpful for leaders to make decisions (Majlergaard, 2015). In the difference industry, the managers also need the difference specific skills. In the food retail industry, the diverse teams will helpful improve the diversity for the kinds of food. Compare with other industries, the most importantly principle of food retail industry still is the food safety. The managers are not only play the leader role on diverse teams, they also need as a standard keeper to specification the whole teamwork (Jayne & Diphoye, 2004). In addition, the professional knowledge of the own industry also is an indispensable skill for managers (Yeager & Nafukho,2012). In the food retail industry, as a successful managers, they should have an accurate taste for the popular interest. The leaders need have higher leadership when they manage the divers teams.

Reference:

Ingram, D., & Media, D. (2015). Advantages and Disadvantages of Diversity in Workplace. [Online] Available at: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/advantage-diadvantages-diversity-workplace-3041.html [Accessed 2 Jun. 2015].

Interactive, H. (2015). Top Ten Tips: How to Manage Diverse Teams. [Online] managementtoday.co.uk. Available at: http://www.managementtoday.co.uk/news/1181428/top-ten-tips-manage-diverse-teams/ [Accessed 2 Jun. 2015]

Jayne, M. E. A., & Diphoye, R. L. (2004). Leveraging Diversity to Improve Business Performance: Research Findings and Recommendations for Organizations. Human Resource Management. Winter 2004. Vol. 43. No. 4. Pp. 409-424.

Knight, D., Pearce, C. L., Smith, K. G., Olian, J. D., Sims, H. P., Smith, K. A., & Flood, P. (1999). Top Management Team Diversity, Group Process, and Strategic Consensus. Strategic Management Journal. Vol. 20. Pp. 445-465.

Majlergaard, F. (2012). The Top 5 Challenges Managers of Cultural Diverse Team are Facing. [Online] Available at: http://gugin.com/the-top-5-challenges-managers-of-cultural-diverse-teams-are-facing/ [Accessed 2 Jun. 2015]

Sammartino, A., O’Flynn, J., & Nicholas, P. S. (2002). Managing Diverse Work Teams: A Business Model for Diversity Management. Australian Centre for International Business.

Yeager, K. L., & Nafukho, F. M. (2012). Developing Diverse Teams to Improve Performance in the Organizational Setting. European Journal of Training and Development. Vol. 36. No. 4. Pp. 388-408.